Tanzania faces many challenges with irrigation; the country is rich in both land and water, yet very little of the cropped area is irrigated. Agriculture continues to provide employment for more than 80% of the population, but productivity remains poor and livelihoods are highly vulnerable. In a DEGRP Reflection we explore new research findings from a project led by the University of Sussex. The research looked at two areas in Tanzania and how this issue is being managed against a backdrop of climate change. The Reflection also looks at the bigger picture - what is happening across Tanzania to improve water management and what needs to change.